Bible Narratives Wiki

Sak′kuth and Kai′wan are interchangeable names for the star-god Saturn. The prophet Amos warned Israel that observance of this false god would bring God's wrath (Amos 5:16-28).


640px-Rubens saturn

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Saturn devouring one of his sons.

(Sak′kuth),HCSB, NLT, NWT [Hebrew:] סִכּוּת (Strong's H5522), [Trans:] cikkuwth, (sik·küth'), or Succoth ,YLT meaning "booth", "tent" GHCL or "tabernacle" [1] may have been identified with the image of a Mesopotamian star-god known as Sakkut, the Babylonian designation for the planet Saturn.

The Greek Septuagint (LXX) renders the expression “Sakkuth your king” as “the tent of Moloch,” and Stephen, who probably quoted the Septuagint, also used the words “the tent of Moloch.” (Ac 7:43) This suggests that “Sakkuth” may have been a portable shrine, a tent or booth, in which the idol image of Moloch was housed.[2]

Moloch was known as the god of the Ammonites and Phoenicians to whom some Israelites sacrificed their infants in the valley of Hinnom. [3]


(Kai′wan), [Hebrew:] כִּיּוּן (Strong's H3594), [Trans:] Kiyuwn, or Chiun, meaning "image" or "pillar", was used in Amos 5:26 to symbolize Israelite apostasy. The image may have been an idol, or statue, of the Assyrian-Babylonian god for the planet Saturn.

According to Akkadian inscriptions, the Mesopotamian star-god kaiwanu[4] is the name of Saturn. Thus Amos 5:26 refers to Kaiwan as “the star of your god”. In the Masoretic text the name was intentionally vowel pointed as a Hebraic device to correspond with the Hebrew word shiqqus (shiq·quts′), meaning "abominable, or disgusting thing".[5]

In the Greek Septuagint (LXX), “Kaiwan” is rendered Rephan (Rhai·phan′) [6][7] In the New Testament, Acts 7:43 follows the LXX with its use of Rephan, Remphan,[8] or Rhom·pha′, [9] apparently from Repa, an Egyptian name of the god Saturn.[10] Rephan may also have some association with the Rephaim.[6]

See also[]


  1. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Ref: 1491
  2. Insight on the Scriptures, it-2 p. 840, SAKKUTH
  3. Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon, מֹלֶךְ
  4. kaimanu, or [Old Babylonian]: Kayawanu
  5. Insight on the Scriptures, it-2 p. 143, KAIWAN
  6. 6.0 6.1 Turrill, J. The British Magazine and Monthly Register of Religious... 1843, Vol. 23, p. 185
  7. Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon, כִּיּוּן
  8. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) Remphan
  9. Westcott and Hort Greek text
  10. Beale & Carson. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, 2007, Acts 7:42-43

External links[]